The first project started at the Centre of Intelligent Infrastructure in Indonesia is post-processing of the Structural Health Monitoring data of the Suramadu Bridge. Paragraphs bellow provide a description of the bridge and monitoring system:
Suramadu Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge which is part of a 5.4km long connection between Madura Island and Surabaya on the island of Java in Indonesia. Constructed over six years (2003–2009). In Suramadu bridge, X axis represents Surabaya-Madura (south-north) direction, Y-axis represents Gresik-Pasuruan (west-east), and Z axis represents vertical direction. There are 3 parts of this bridge. The first one is fly-over on both side, covering 1458m from Surabaya and 1818m from Madura. The second part is the connector (approach bridge) of 627m each. The last part is the central bridge which consists of two 192m side extensions and a 434m main span. Figure bellow shows the schematic representation of the central Suramadu Bridge alongside with the location of sensors used in this paper. The bridge comprises two symmetrical cable-stayed cantilever sections. The deck is 30m wide and comprises two longitudinal steel girders, approximately 2.8m deep, stringers and floor beams and a reinforced concrete slab with 250mm in depth. The cable plane is aligned with the central line of the main girders. There are 70 stay cables in each cable plane and 140 cables in the whole bridge.
Bridge Monitoring System
Suramadu bridge is an essential part of transportation for eastern Java in Indonesia. After the construction, the Indonesian Ministry of Public Works and Housing (IMPWH) invested in monitoring and maintenance of the bridge due to the fact that resiliency and serviceability of the bridge are essential for the economy of the region. After the construction of the bridge, an extensive set of sensors were installed in 2009 and 2011. Anemometers are implemented in order to measure the magnitude and direction of wind speed.
Monitoring the temperature and humidity is important to record environmental impact. Air temperature and relative humidity (ATRH) sensors were installed to measure ambient temperature and humidity in pylon and girder. Tiltmeters are deployed in order to monitor the angular rotation of the pylons due to the load applied to the bridge. In Suramadu bridge, two uniaxial tiltmeters are combined to form bi-axial tiltmeter. Accelerometers are important device in SHM to measure the vibration occurred in the bridge. Bi-axial accelerometers are formed by combining 2 uniaxial accelerometers. GPS are shown recently to be a valuable device in SHM (Schaal & Larocca). In Suramadu bridge GPS are used to monitor the bridge movement, two references are installed outside the bridge while 14 rovers are installed in the bridge.
Weigh-in-motion sensors provide valuable information about the non-stationary traffic loads such as total number of vehicles and their weight on each axle and can be used for fatigue analysis. Other sensors such as strain sensors, displacement transducer, corrosion sensors (for steel bar, concrete and girder) cathodic protection monitoring and rain sensors are installed in Suramadu bridge which provides an extensive database for monitoring and research about the performance of the bridge. Table bellow summarizes the monitoring system, the quantity of each device and sampling frequency.
|Sensor||Installed Device||Quantity||Sampling Rate (Hz)|
|Tri/Bi-Axial Anemometer||Young 81000/85000||2/2||4 & 100|
|Bi Axial Tiltmeter||Geokon 6350||16||0.025|
|Single/Bi/Tri Axial Accelerometer||Silicon 2220-002/2220-002/2460-002||6/11/1||5|
|Seismic Accelerometer||PCB Piezotronic 393B31||2||5|
|EM Sensor||IIS EM Sensor PowerStress EM-II-xxx||32||0.00027|
|Displacement Transducer||Microepsilon WDS 2000 P96||8||5|
|Temperature Sensor (FBG)||BGK-FBG-4700S||16||1|
|FBG Strain Sensor||BGK-FBG-4150/4000/4000T/4150||42/78/50/4||1|
|Steel Bar Corrosion||FBG-FBG-4150||8||1|
|Cathodic protection monitoring (CPM)||IIS B-0L-001 CeBox Flux||81||0.00004|
|Rain Sensor||Texas Instrument TE525||2||–|
The main objective of the project is performing system identification and producing a detailed FE model for further investigation and research on the bridge. For more information about the recent publications please refer to the publication page of this website.